It is becoming patently clear that outdated emphasis on rote learning does not prepare students for an ever changing, automated, and information-saturated world. Studies conducted in various countries emphasize these main competencies that every educational system ought to develop to meet 21st century challenges: creativity, critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making (Kautz, Heckman, Doris, ter Weel, & Borghans, 2017; Wechsler et al., 2018). Traditionally, education systems and settings have focused on passive consumption of knowledge while programming student thinking for routine, habitual and fixed procedures. Learning thus resulted in the knowledge of how to do something: repeating procedures over and over while re-applying the same knowledge.
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